Free Download Latest Books on Technical Textile, Fiber, Spinning, Fabric, Weaving, Knitting, Garments, Fashion, Design, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing

Textile is the ancient branch of engineering. Now textile engineering study is becoming more demand-able then before. Because textiles have not only used for wearing but also hugely used in different sectors like as technical textile. Many research works are being done on textile. But doing research anything it needs huge information. Books have not alternative of information. But price of every book is out of range such like us third world country’s people. For fulfillment the demand of information I will give a list of textile books. All books I have collected from my friends and fans who are studying in different famous universities around the world. I think these books will be helpful for students, researchers, businessmen, entrepreneurs as well as all people who are interested to know about textile. 


Warning: If you want to get any book from the following list then you must have to publish Article or Assignment or Project work in this blog for promoting purpose. Without these please don't send email.


Books on Technical Textile/Updated Textile

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Textiles for Protection
  2. Advanced Textiles for Wound Care
  3. Advances in Fire Retardant Materials
  4. Advances in military textiles and personal equipment
  5. Advances in Textile Biotechnology
  6. Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles
  7. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  8. Biologically Inspired Textiles
  9. Biomechanical Engineering of Textiles & Clothing
  10. Clothing Biosensory Engineering
  11. Coated & Laminated Textiles
  12. Ecotextiles The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Textiles
  13. Engineering Textiles - Intergrating The Design and Manufacture of Textile Products
  14. Fibrous and Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Applications
  15. Friction in Textile Materials
  16. Functional Textiles for Improved Performance
  17. Hand book of medical textile
  18. Handbook of Geosynthetics
  19. Handbook of nonwovens
  20. Handbook of Sustainable Textile Production
  21. Handbook of Technical Textile
  22. Intelligent Textiles & Clothing
  23. Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection
  24. Intelligent Textiles for Personal Protection & Safety
  25. Interior Textiles - Design and Developments
  26. Military Textiles
  27. Modelling and Predicting Textile Behaviour
  28. Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles
  29. Performance of Home Textiles
  30. Plasma technologies for textiles
  31. Recycling in Textiles
  32. Recycling textile and plastic waste
  33. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  34. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  35. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  36. Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates
  37. Smart Textiles for Medicine & Healthcare - Materials, Systems & Applications
  38. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  39. Surface modification of textiles
  40. Sustainable Textiles - Life Cycle and Environmental Impact
  41. Textile Advances in The Automotive Industry
  42. Textile Processing with Enzymes
  43. Textiles for Cold Weather Apparel
  44. Textiles for Hygiene and Infection Control
  45. Textiles in Automotive Engineering
  46. Textiles in Sport
  47. Textiles, polymers and composites for buildings
  48. Training and development of technical staff in the textile industry
  49. Wearable Electronics & Photonics
  50. Weaving of 3D fabrics A critical appreciation of the developments
  51. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  52. Textile Reference Book of Nonwovens
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Coating Substrates and Textiles
  2. Geotextiles in transportation applications
  3. Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin
  4. Coated Textiles Principles and Applications
  5. Introduction to nanotechnology
  6. Advances in Construction Materials
  7. Coated Textile
  8. Engineering Use of GeoTextile
  9. Nanocomposite Science and Technology
  10. Health aspects of flame retardants in textile
  11. Technical Textile Class Notes
  12. Textile Composites and inflatable structures
  13. Adaptive and functional polymers, textiles and their applications
  14. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  15. Survey of technical textile

Books on Dyeing/Printing/Finishing

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 1
  2. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 2
  3. Basic Principles of Textile Coloration
  4. Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles
  5. Total Colour Management in Textiles
  6. Recent Advances in Environmentally Compatible Polymers
  7. Environmental aspects of textile dyeing
  8. Colour Measurement - Principles, Advances and Industrial Applications
  9. Environmental Aspects of Textile Dyeing
  10. Environmental Impact of Textiles
  11. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  12. Chemical Finishing of Textiles
  13. Digital Printing of Textiles
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  2. Functional Dyes
  3. Batchwise dyeing of cellolosic fabrics
  4. Blends dyeing
  5. Cellulosic dyeing
  6. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  7. Color in dye house effluent
  8. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (1)
  9. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (2)
  10. Color for textiles
  11. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibers
  12. Dyes & Pigments
  13. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  14. Industrial Dyes
  15. Practical Dyeing Volume 1
  16. Practical Dyeing Volume 3
  17. Singeing fundamentals
  18. Textiles Dyeing and Printing-I
  19. Textile Dyeing and Printing-II
  20. The Chemistry of Dyeing
  21. Water recycling
  22. Wool dyeing
  23. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  24. Colour-Chemistry
  25. Encyclopedia Of Textile Finishing
  26. Reference book of Finishing
  27. Textile Finishing Chemicals
  28. Textile finishing
  29. Textile printing

Books on Fiber

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. High-performance fibres
  2. New Millennium Fibres
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Identification of Textile Fibers
  5. Physical Properties of Textile Fibres (4th Edition)
  6. Cotton Science and technology
  7. Physical properties of textile fibres
  8. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  9. Advances In Polymer Science 178 - Polymeric & Inorganic Fibers
  10. Advances in Wool technology
  11. Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles
  12. Bast and other plant fibres
  13. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  14. Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres
  15. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology
  16. Handbook of natural fibres volume1
  17. Handbook of natural fibres volume2
  18. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  19. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 1
  20. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 2
  21. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  22. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  23. Polyesters & Polyamides
  24. Regenerated Cellulose Fibers
  25. Silk, mohair, cashmere and other luxury fibres
  26. Synthetic Fibres - Nylon, Polyester,
  27. Wool - Science & Technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres
  2. Fiber Dictionary
  3. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  4. Reference book for man made fibers

Books on Spinning

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in yarn spinning technology
  2. Handbook of Yarn Production
  3. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  4. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  5. Yarn Texturing Technology
  6. False twist textured yarns - Principles, processes and applications
  7. Fancy yarns
  8. High speed spinning of polyester and its blends with viscose
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Cotton Spinning Calculation and Yarn Cost
  2. Fundamentals-of-spun-yarn-technology
  3. Reference book for spinning
  4. Textile calculation
  5. Yarn count & Calculation

Books on Fabric/Design/Weaving/Knitting

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Design & Manufacture of Textile Composites
  2. Advances in Carpet Manufacture
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Effect of Mechanical & Physical Properties on Fabric Hand
  5. Fundamentals of designing for textiles and other end uses
  6. Sizing in Clothing
  7. Structure & Mechanics of Woven Fabrics
  8. Woven Textile Structure - Theory and Applications
  9. Knitting Technology
  10. Advances in Knitting Technology
  11. Fundamentals and advances in knitting technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Nonwoven-Fabrics
  2. Handbook of Weaving
  3. Mastering Weave Structures
  4. Reference books of weaving
  5. Textile Sizing
  6. A Handbook of Weaves
  7. Fabric Structure Design
  8. Handbook of textile design
  9. Basics Fashion Design - Sourcing Ideas
  10. Basics Fashion Design - Textiles and Fashion
  11. Textile - Reference Book for Knitting

Books on Garments/Merchandising/Fashion

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in Apparel Production
  2. Industrial engineering in apparel production
  3. Computer Technology for Textiles and Apparel
  4. New product development in textiles
  5. Quality Characterization of Apparel
  6. Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments
  7. Humidification and Ventilation Management in Textile Industry
  8. Management of Technology Systems in Garment Industry
  9. Science in Clothing Comfort
  10. Sizing in Clothing
  11. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  12. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  13. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  14. Statistics for textile and apparel management
  15. The global textile and clothing industry
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Understanding textile for a merchandiser
  2. Career in Textile and Fashion Designing
  3. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
  4. Beginning garment making
  5. Embroidering Identities- A Century of Palestinian Clothing
  6. Fashionable Technology
  7. Sewing machine classroom
  8. The Apparel Industry
  9. Yarn and cloth making

Books on Textile Testing
  1. Fabric Testing
  2. Identification of Textile Fibers
  3. Physical Testing of Textiles
  4. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  5. Chemical Testing of Textiles
  6. Effective Implementation of Quality Management Systems

Books on Textile Chemistry
  1. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  2. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  3. Advances in Polymer Science
  4. Chemical_Technology_of_Textile_Fibres
  5. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  6. Chemistry of the Textile Industry
  7. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  8. The_Chemistry_of_Dyeing
  9. Textile & Paper Chemistry & Technology
  10. Colour-Chemistry

Other Books
  1. Textile Engineering
  2. Textiles Technology
  3. Advance in Textile Engineering
  4. Basic Textile Technology
  5. C programme
  6. KOTLER - Marketing Management, Millennium Edition
  7. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  8. Textiles Industry
  9. The italian textile machinery industry
Without of these books I have also many old books and huge collection of research papers, reports, presentations, assignments, project works. All things only for textile learners.

How to get Books?
For students, lecturers, professors who write good article there is a bonus. Please contact the editor.


Contact Details:
Mazharul Islam Kiron
Cell: +88 01724 752452
E-mail: textilelearners@gmail.com
Dhaka, Bangladesh








Calculate Yarn Consumption and Costing for Fully Fashioned Knitwear

Calculate the Yarn Consumption and Costing / Pricing Techniques for the Fully Fashioned Knitwear
Muhammad Rahat
Dept. of Knitwear Manufacturing Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology (BUFT)
Email: smrahatsaif@gmail.com



What is consumption?
  • How many yarn are required to produce one dzn sweater
Fully fashioned knitwear
What are the basic requirements?
  • Knowledge about gauges—4G, 5G, 7G etc.
  • Knowledge about material/yarn—100% acrylic
  • Weight of the garments—15lbs/dzn
Wastage Mainly 6%:
What are the objectives of costing?
  • Determining the competitive and correct pricing.
What are the basic requirements?
  • Understanding styling and designing.
  • Knowledge about different gauge.
  • Mode of business term (FOB, CFR, CIF, etc).
  • Mode of Payments (L/C type and payments term).
  • Nature of business (Factory or buying house).
Condition
  • Considering a compliance Factory (FOB).
  • Not any (CM/CMT) base factory.
Season based one gauge.

Types and gauge 
  • Peak Season 
  • Off peak season
Standard CM ranges (Complianced factory) CM based on gauge and season.

Types of Gauge: Off peak
3G ....................................$20/dzn ..........................$22/dzn
5G ....................................$21/dzn .........................$23/dzn
7G ....................................$22/dzn ......................... $24/dzn
10/12G .............................$24/dzn ..........................$26/dzn

Additional Charges:
Styling and designing charges
  1. For raglan and saddle = $0.5/dzn
  2. Drop and set-in = $0.25/dzn
  3. For straight shoulder = No additional charges because no increase and decrease.
Designing Charges
  1. Cables (Normal)------$0.25/line/dzn
  2. Cables (Fancy)--------$0.50/line/dzn
  3. Cables (Butterfly)----$1.50/line/dzn
Diamond
  1. Normal Diamond-------- $1.00/line/dzn
  2. Fancy Diamond---------- $1.50line/dzn
Example:
*Calculate the costing/pricing of a men’s sweater with crew neck, raglan shoulder, long sleeve, allover 6 line normal cables, and 4 lines normal diamond in 5G 100% acrylic yarn.

Shipment: 10th September.
Weight: 15 lbs/dzn
FOB Factory merchandising say yarn price $1.50/lbs.

Solution:

15+6% =15.90 lbs/dzn $1.50 = $23.85
CM………………………… = $21.00
Styling……………………… = $0.50
Designing……………….….. = $5.50
Trims/Accessories……….…. = $4.00
Commercial+Logisti+Mise .....= $4.00
……………………………………………………..
FOB factory ...........................= $58.85/dzn


Sateen Weave - An Overview

Sateen Weave - An Overview
Md. Enamul Haque
Department of Textile Engineering,
Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET)
Khulna-9203, Bangladesh.
Email: enamul159@yahoo.com



Sateen Weave:
A weave in which warp threads interlace with filling threads to produce a smooth-faced fabric. A sateen fabric tends to have a high luster due to the high number of floats on the fabric. Sateen weaves produce a smooth, even and glossy fabric surface. This is due to the interlacing points being covered up by the floats of the neighboring threads.

Features of satin/sateen
  1. The fabric surface is very smooth and lustrous.
  2. By using low twisted yarn and by increasing EPI, smoothness can be increased.
  3. Only one interlacement between warp and weft.
  4. The interlacement point is covered with adjacent long float yarn.
  5. No. of cross mark or base mark is equal to the no. of threads in repeat.
  6. Loose structure compare to plain and twill.
  7. No visible twill line.
  8. Widely used in case of jacquard design.
Classification of satin/sateen
Classification of sateen weave
Classification of sateen weave
Warp satin
If the prominence of warp floating are seen on the fabric, this satin are called warp satin. Warp satin is expressed by 1/x  (y). Where, x = warp face, y = move number (step value)

Regular warp satin:
  • Warp satin is woven so that the warp may be seen on the surface of the fabric.
  • Reflection of light on the floats gives satin fabric its primary characteristic of luster, which appears in the direction of the warp.
  • Select repeat size
  • Identify move number 
Regular warp satin
Regular warp satin
Irregular warp satin:
  • There is no step value or move number to construct the irregular satin.
  • Only 4 – end and 6- end satins are irregular.
  • Straight drafting system is used to produce this weave. 
Irregular warp satin
Irregular warp satin
Weft sateen
If the prominence of weft floating are seen on the fabric surface, this sateen are called weft sateen. Weft sateen is expressed by 1/x  (y). where, x = weft face, y = move number

Regular weft sateen:
  • Select repeat size
  • Fixed move number.
Regular weft sateen
Regular weft sateen
Irregular weft sateen:
  • There is no step value or move number to construct the irregular sateen.
  • Only 4 – end and 6- end sateens are irregular.
  • Straight drafting system is used to produce this Weave.
Irregular weft sateen
Move number
The distance between two adjacent interlacing points are known as move number or step value.

Usable step values for satin weaves

Advantages and disadvantages of satin weave
These constructions produce smooth, lustrous, rich-looking fabrics that give reasonably good service if they are not subjected to excessive hard wear. Short float fabrics are more durable than long-float fabric. When style calls for luxurious fabrics for formal wear, satin is often chosen. It is an especially suitable fabric for coat linings.

Satin weave usually requires more shafts in the weaving than do the plain or twill weaves, there by increasing the cost of production.

End uses
Satin is commonly used in apparel: satin baseball jackets, athletic shorts, women's lingerie, nightgowns, blouses, and evening gowns, but also in some men's boxer shorts, briefs, shirts and neckties. It is also used in the production of pointe shoes for use in ballet. Other uses include interior furnishing fabrics, upholstery, and bed sheets.

Important Terms of Cutting for Students & Professionals

Important Terms for Cutting & Tailoring Students

R.S.BALAKUMAR
M.A.(SOCIOLOGY ), M.L.M.(Labour Management), Pursuing MBA(EXECUTIVE) in (FASHION-TECH), MISTE., Chennai, India
Cell: +91-9283182955
Email: rsbalakumar1953@gmail.com



1. BALANCE MARKS: Marks made on the various pieces of the garment to maintain a balance while stitching. Sometimes the pieces not marked may not be matched properly at the time of stitching giving the garment an odd shape. Used mainly to keep a balance when joining knees, waist, hip etc. A balanced garment fits well and hence it is essential to use these marks, even when one has become a master at tailoring.
2. BALANCE NOTCHES: These are small cuts made at the time of tracing the pattern. Made mainly to mark out pleats, darts, overlapping.Also used at times to mark the side seams, waist, and knees.

3. BALANCE MARKING: Points marked with the help of a tracing wheel are known as balance marks. Sometimes one needs to put the marks on the right side of the fabric, putting these marks with tailor chalk or a marking pencil, may spoil the cloth. That is when the tracing wheel is used. The tracing wheel can also be used to mark various layers of cloth at one go – for pocket positions etc.

4. BAGGING: Garments that take the shape of a bag like slacks, pyjamas, which are tight at the knee or elbow. These are always in the danger of the crease opening at the elbow/knee joint due to movement. A small bag like pouch is formed at these places, if the garment is too tight. This is known as bagging.

5. BRIDLE: When the lapel turns outwards in a collar, like in a coat the large fold is cut on bias, and to avoid it flapping a straight tape is attached at the edge. This is known as the bridle.

6. LAPEL: When the collar hangs separately from the over lapping and is folded outwards, it is known as lapel.

7. CUT ON DOUBLE: When the fabric is folded before cutting, it is known as cut on double or on fold. Most parts of the garment –front, sleeve, back are cut in this manner.

8. LAYING: The fabric is first out spread out properly, without any creases or folds and only then is the pattern traced out and the fabric cut. The laying of the fabric properly is known as laying.

9. LAYOUT: To put the different pattern pieces on the cloth is known as layout. This helps in checking if the cloth is enough or if a patterned cloth has different pieces with matching pattern.

10. CLOSING: Means attaching a means of closing an opening – it could be a hook, a button, a zip or a cord.

11. FACING: Finishing an edge of the garment- neckline, armhole, or other opening by attaching a separate piece of cloth (of same or different fabric). This piece is cut in the same shape as that of the opening.

12. FALSE FACING: A broad strip of cloth attached to an edge and turned inside to finish the edge instead of hemming is known as false facing. A thinner strip of cloth being attached is known as false hem.

13. DART: Without spoiling the shape of the garment, and in order to give a perfect fit, a small amount of cloth is folded and stitched with a single strand till the other end. This process is called putting a dart. It is used at various places on the garment like bust dart, waist dart etc. to give fitting or fullness to shape.

14. FISH DART: This is put at the back in lower body garments like shorts, trousers, slacks. Its shape is like a fish, hence the name. It takes an angular shape after being put straight for some distance.

15. PLEATS: A fold taken from the inside of a garment and held in place by a stitch is known as a pleat. These are of many types like straight pleats, inverted pleats etc. These are used either as a design element or to provide fullness or fitting.

16. TUCKS: Folding the cloth a little from the right side and stitching in a straight line is known as putting a tuck. This is also used to enhance the beauty of the garment or to provide a better fit. If these stitched lines appear of the thickness of a pin then they are known as pin tucks.

17. VENT: A type of closing which is stitched at the top but open at the bottom. Generally put at the back. The two pieces of the garment being held together by this seem to overlap each other. The stitch is not visible from outside.

18. SLIT: A type of opening which does not have any overlapping. Used in women’s garments like shirts, skirts etc.

19. WELT: Also known as fich. This is a broad band on the pocket of a coat. This is stitched from both sides. A pocket which has the stitch on the outside is used on shorts, trousers, slacks, T-shirts etc. 
 
20. OPENING: The space kept in the garment for ease of wearing and taking off, generally without any overlapping is known as opening.

21. PLACKET: An opening finished by keeping an overlap is known as a placket. Examples are a frock back or a kurta neck.

22. STAND OF COLLAR: When the collar is put against the garment and the place where the fold happens-the part that comes beneath is known as stand of collar. This is the part that touches the neck.

23. FALL OF COLLAR: The part of collar that is attached above the band or the broad part that falls below or outwards from the band or stand is known as the fall of collar.

24. FLAIR: These are of two types – Straight and umbrella cut. The straight flair is attached at the waist by the help of gathers, tucks or pleats and the part that is left loose is called the flair. Also used to describe lower body garments which have a big opening at the bottom and no demarcation for knees.

25. GATHERING: Means to put pleats or to gather a piece of cloth by putting a loose running stitch and then pulling the thread. Look good when used on puff sleeves, skirts, ladies garments and children’s garments according to fashion.

26. JETTING: When an extra piece of cloth is attached to give strength to a pocket and then to hide this extra piece, another piece of the same fabric as that of the main garment is attached, then it is known as Jetting.

27. BUTTON STAND: The piece of band on top of which a button is affixed is known as button stand.

28. BUTTON HOLE: The opening made through which a button can be passed is known as button-hole.

29. POCKET STAY: The straight tape attached to the inside of a pocket opening to keep it upright is known as pocket stay. This tape is the straight selvedge side.

30. YOKE: The part of the garment from the waist upwards, given a particular shape like round, square, triangular and attached separately is known as yoke.

31. LINING: An extra cloth attached under the main garment is known as lining. Used mainly under transparent materials, lining gives the garment extra strength as well as finishing.

32. INTER LINING: An extra layer put in between the main garment and the lining is known as inter lining. For e.g. Buckram, Tetron etc.

33. SHEARING: To shorten a part of a garment, without cutting off the extra piece of material, one can create folds on the top half and then hide them by attaching a trim like lace, piping, or a cord. This process is known as shearing.

34. SMOCKING: Creating a design on a piece of cloth by first putting loose stitches in straight lines with the help of a graph paper, pulling gently on the threads and then embroidering over the gathers thus created, is known as smocking. Used as a decorative stitch.

35. HONEY COMB: A variation of smocking. The amount of material required for this is a little less than that for smocking. The space between stitches in smocking is a little less, whereas here the distances are greater. Embroi- dering over the gathers to hold them in place is done here also. This takes the shape of a honey comb upon finishing.

36. SCYE UP AND SCYE LOWER: Used particularly for coat sleeves. The point where the armhole attaches to the sleeves to maintain the correct balance of a sleeve is known as scye. The point at the back is known as scye up and the front part is known as scye lower.

37. INLAYS: The extra cloth kept after the looseness in a garment is known as inlays. This helps in increasing the size of the garment if so required. .

38. TURNING: The extra margin kept at the edges for turning in and finishing the garment is known as turning.

39. SEAM ALLOWANCE: The margin kept for stitching the garment is known as seam allowance. This means that after drafting the neck, armhole, waist and chest, about 4cm margin is kept and then another line drawn which is the stitching guide – this is known as the seam allowance.

40. MARGIN: The extra cloth kept apart from the turning is known as margin. This helps to increase the length of a garment.

41. FORE PITCH: The notch kept in the forward arm hole before joining a coat sleeve is known as fore pitch.

42. BACK PITCH: The back notch kept for joining the coat sleeve to the armhole is known as back pitch.

43. GORGE: The depth of the neck is known as gorge. This is used to alter either the breadth or the length of the neck.

44. BUTTON NECK: When extra thread is wound around the bottom of the button but above the bad, then it is known as button neck.

45. SLEEVE HEAD/SLEEVE CROWN: The top portion of the sleeve where the curve happens is also known as the sleeve crown or sleeve head.

46. TRY/TRIAL/FITTING: When a garment is first fitted on to a dummy to check for fit or tried on the person for whom it is being stitched before putting in the final stitches, then the process is known by either of these names- try, trial or fitting.

47. DUMMY: A cloth figure made in the shape of a normal human figure is called dummy. This is used to check for fitting etc.

48. BIAS: A square cloth folded into the shape of a triangle and then cut at an angle to the weave is known as bias.

49. OVER LAPPING: When the cloth of one side of an opening comes over the other, then it known as overlapping.

50. BUTTON HOLE FAN: The rounded edge of a button hole is known as the button hole fan.

51. BUTTON HOLE BAR: The last action at the time of finishing a button hole where the stitch is finished is known as the button hole bar.

52. SELVEDGE: The finished edge of the cloth which is a self finished edge at the time of weaving is known as selvedge.

53. CREASE EDGE: The edge of a garment created by giving a crease is known as crease edge.

54. PLAIN WEAVE: An ordinary weave with no interwoven designs is known as a plain weave.

55. TWILL WEAVE: When the cloth is woven with a slanted thread to give a self design effect then it known as twill weave. The right side of this weave is plain and smooth while the wrong side is rough to the touch. E.g. Satin, Taffeta.

56. PADDING: When an extra pad is inserted in any part of the garment to enhance that part, then it is known as padding – this may be done on the shoulders, bust or hips. This is made using cotton wool or even a sponge.

57. WARP: The lengthwise direction of the thread while weaving is known as warp.

58. WEFT: The breadth wise weave is known as weft.

59. CANVAS: Available in many types like cotton, woolen etc. Used for interlining especially in coats.

60. FORK LINE: The part where the fly is attached in shorts or trousers.

61. SEAT PIECE: The place in a trouser where the two legs meet is joined together using a bias cut piece of cloth – this is known as seat piece. This is attached to give a better fit and to ensure that the seams do not open upon wear and tear of the garment.

62. BACK PIECE: A 3”-4” piece of cloth kept as an extra piece at the back of trousers and attached under the belt.

63. MANIPULATION: When the seat of a trouser is pressed into place after stitching by using a hot iron or steam.

64. TEXTURE: The surface of a cloth is known as texture.

65. BODY RISE: When the crotch breadth is increased in the curved area, the process is known as body rise.

66. PEAK POINT: The neck at the back being raised by about 2 cm to give a better shape and fit to a collar or a band.

67. MASS PRODUCTION: When clothes are produced on a large scale like in a factory, then the process is known as mass production.

68. PANELS: Strips of cloth joined in a garment for fashion or to increase the width are known as panels.

69. SUPRESSION: A hot iron is used to shrink the cloth in places wherever necessary like a waist in a coat or above the hip in a trouser etc.

70. CROTCH: The part where a lower body garment is joined with a curve is known as crotch.

71. C.P. G: A special measuring tape which allows a tailor to take three/four measurements at the same time.

72. POCKET HANG: A straight band kept above a coat pocket which extends till the shoulder, along the side seam to avoid the pocket mouth from hanging out, is known as pocket hang.

73. FLAP: An extra piece of cloth attached to the outside of a pocket as a covering for the mouth is known as a flap. Attached on men’s shirt, coat pocket etc.

74. SHOULDER FLAP: A flap attached on top of the shoulder, mostly on shirts of scout or army personnel etc. Sometimes used as a fashion element also.

75. SEAM: These are of many types. Used to attach two pieces of cloth. To give a piece of cloth the shape of a garment is the magic of seams. Seams are the basis of a garment. After cutting the various parts of the garment from a piece of cloth it is these seams either sewn by hand or with the help of a machine which give those various pieces of cloth the shape of a garment.

76. IRON SPEAKING: A few drops of water sprinkled on the hot surface of an iron to test its readiness to use, turning to steam and letting out a hissing sound is known as iron speaking. 77. GORE: To increase the flair of a bell bottom, a small triangular piece is joined at the bottom opening. This is a type of small panel.