The Way of Smart Merchandising

The Way of Smart Merchandising
Muhammad Nurul Alam
Senior Merchandiser | Asmara BD Pvt. Ltd. | Dhaka | Bangladesh
Cell: +8801930540035
E-mail :

Do you know what is the working hour for a merchandiser in Bangladesh . Believe or not Merchandisers in Bangladesh are working more than 13-14 hours as regular job & some time much more . Always they are busy with hundreds of work schedule but nothing can be completed within office hour . So they have to stay in work place up-to late night . You can’t say this is only inefficiency of their profession because most of the time they are over loaded . The owners are having a cost minimizing tendency so they hire a Merchandiser instead of two or more without considering the demand of work load . As a result a merchandiser always fail to enjoy their regular life & gets tired . They loss their innovative force & feel exhausted in older years . We often see merchandiser who aged beyond 45-50 either loss their job or stay in the organization as a good for nothing . Owners don’t want to pay higher salary for him though they already have taken valuable energy ,time & work force in early age . This is really shocking that now they feel you are not to be used . Yes , right now we have to think how can take the best from our life period . Whatever the age we should have to keep energy & not to be exhausted . We can think for us from today & prepare a new deal for your career . To make easy & to be smarter merchandiser in our way of working please let us do something different . Today we are going to discuss how you can manage your thousands of job in a limited period of hours & can keep maximum energy .
Merchandiser work in office
Merchandiser work in office
1) Make a list of all your job:
This is very important what you are doing to keep it in your daily schedule . It would be better to make schedule 1st daily than weekly & finally monthly . Why this is important to do list ? First of all we are human being. So this is not possible to keep everything in our mind & to do the thing in priority basis . Usually a Merchandiser has to work through lots of stress as well as difficulties . For which this is not surprising if you see he is forgetting to do some most important task that should have to perform in first priority . The second thing is – when we see thousands of task that we have to perform within a very short period of time our nerves gets week . we feel exhausted & fatigue . So by the making schedule we can easily prioritize your task & get the most important & urgent thing .

The below diagram will help everyone to do list in the work priority . This may take little time to make your habit with the method but believe me the method is really effective .

Not Urgent
  1. Fabric booking
  2. Yarn procurement
  3. Price for new query
  4. PP sample submission
  1. Recape meeting with senior
  2. Production up-date
  3. Bulk Lot shade approval
  4. Factory visit & get the production status
Not Important
  1. File & Sample organizing
  2. System Up-date
  3. Price review
  1. New product collection
  2. Develop product knowledge
  3. Knowing up-date product status of other customer
2) Don’t put task for tomorrow:
Just keep in mind that tomorrow never come . If you are thinking today is for relax & tomorrow will be your busy day that would be unrealistic . Actually it does not happen because tomorrow you will see new task has added to do & in this way task will be more . One day without doing your important task means you are going to burden yourself for tomorrow .So whatever you think that should have be done today from your task priority list , do it immediately . Never wait for tomorrow.

3) Check double/Triple which is mathematical:
Usually a merchandiser works in a rush movement so sometimes it is not possible to do all the mathematical task in cool mind . Suppose you are going to book fabric or yarn . Here you have to calculate some figure to get the fabric amount that can be used for bulk . but for the all rush movement you made little mistake & proceeded for procurement . Your delivery time may be very short so without any revision of your booking hand over it to supplier & finally when the fabric in-housed it was identified what mistake you have done earlier during fabric booking. May be you mistake in color name or fabrication is wrong . Instead of 90/10 cotton/elastane you received fabric in 100% cotton . This is due to you worked in an old work order sheet where fabric was booked in 100% cotton & in the new sheet fabrication was not changed . The mistake is very little but outcome is devastating . To save time you did not give a cross check on the sheet & now all of your production schedule has gone to drain . This is really measurable when you will see your fabric is in-housed but cannot meet delivery date . Now again book the fabric newly & shipped the goods by air due to you missed delivery date . Actually this would not happen if you are careful & taking extra time give revision twice or triple . If you can take help from your colleague to see the booking as second party . This will help you to avoid extra hassle & to utilize your time properly . Here you can keep some key for cross check . cross check means the figure that should be off course changed in new booking . For fabric booking check the below
  • Fabric composition .
  • Fabric construction .
  • Fabric color .
  • Fabric width .
  • Finally Fabric Qty .
4) Don’t miss any mail:
A single mail can change total output . If you are not properly look into your mail & work through of it you may miss some important information . So read your every single mail & share the mail with all the relevant party . Don’t keep it in your box only . If you have some mail that you should give answer please keep it in red mark so that it will not go out of your track .

5) Don’t do a task twice:
This is actually relevant to point no 3 . Take extra time to do anything but don’t think you will do it twice or 2nd time you will get the opportunity to do it again . Suppose you are in great rush hour to submit sample, giving mail repeatedly to factory to submit the sample in certain date along with lots of phone call . Finally received it but factory made mistake to follow earlier comments what buyer has given . That means the sample is rejected & is not ok to send buyer . Again the sample is made following the comments but it was late one week . So all your production plan got delayed because of not to submit the sample due date . Actually from beginning you could avoid all the delay & wrong thing . If you could take just extra 15 minutes to check the change that buyer want in the earlier comment or before stitching you could visit factory & check everything that sample is going in right way it would help you to save time & energy . Take extra minute to do anything .

5) Do extra work just one day:
In your ‘to do list’ you got some task that has to be done by this week but you are engaged so much in some important meeting so could not able to work on weekly schedule . Now what can you do ? Use only one day to work extra hour in the week . Never think to do it every day . You can work extra hour at the last working day of a week so that the next day you can do relax & enjoy family . So a day for a week can be your extra hour to finish pending task . This will help you to minimize your work load .

6) Make a good relation with everyone to get job done early:
This is said that everyone is king in his own work place . May be the person is a lab in charge . As job routine he is bound to do what are all your requirement because owner assigned him to do job what merchandiser demand in related to lab issue . But this is also true he keeps schedule in his every day to do list as per queue . So you cannot ask for lab dip just in a day where as he has hundreds of lab making in the schedule . Here if you have good relation with the person it will be easy to get lab dip though you are not in the queue . So make a good relation to all the department even a person who is in a worker level . Never underestimate any one . Respect all to get respect from every one .

7) Utilize down time:
Usually success comes from the time which is not usually counted by the commners . Because to do extra work there are no alternative way except utilizing down time . Down time means – the time what you are just doing nothing or doing one more job simultaneously . Suppose you are just stucked in the traffic jam which is very common in our city life . It is often seen people are just seating in the jam & trying to blame the system . But if you want to use your down time ,this can be an opportunity for you . Take journal or book & start reading . That means all of your time can be used properly . On the other hand you can use down time in different way . May be you are having lunch .This may take 15 minutes to finish . During your lunch time you can listen radio news in your mobile . This will help you to get up-date information about what is happening around you . your busy life will not stop you to be up-dated in a new day .

8) Keep proper tracking whatever your are doing:
We are human being . So sometime this is not possible to keep everything in our memory . In the merchandising no one can you say everything is in tracking unless he follows some basic rules . The basic rules of keeping track is ‘put down notes’ in your excel sheet or note book . Make a excel sheet & put all your information whatever you receive every day . Put the date on the stuff what you receive from buyer & what you send to buyer . keep same information on the submitted items to avoid any kinds of confusion between you & buyer . Keep your sample / swatch in a place where anything may not be lost . Make sure to keep separately all your important items to be understood by everyone or to get it in your absence . You can follow below rules to keep tracking .
  • Put date on everything .
  • Up-date & review your excel sheet every day .
  • Keep hard copy of all your important mail . Because some time you may not be in net service when the information is required .
  • Put your excel saved in your draft mail to find the data available incase computer is got effected by the harmful virus .
  • Don’t forget to send a mail to any consignee whenever you are sending sample /swatch .
9) Keep all approval in hand :
Don’t miss any of your approval that received from buyer . Suppose fabric quality , sample or trims whatever comments on submission please keep in proper way so that it will not loss . If you have several submission on particular item that sent to buyer make sure to keep date & comment for each submission . This will help you not to be haphazard among the all submission .

10) Don’t miss to put anything on mailing correspondence :
Some time you may feel unnecessary to put things in the mail whatever discussion you did in phone or verbal communication with someone . In reality this is very important & never delay to put the content you discussed in a written document /mail to prove the conversation . Suppose a trim supplier confirmed you in a particular date to deliver the item over the phone . As you feel the commitment is definitely will be met so did not put the conversation in mail . But in the due date you get the supplier denied to deliver the item & ignored his commitment . So if you could keep the commitment in a written document it would be easier to hold him . Believe me this is most effective to make easy your job ,keeping things in mail .

11) Keep clean your desk :
A merchandiser has to do hundreds of job in a day so this is quite natural if his desk gets occupied by lots of stuff like paper , swatch , trims etc. Every day new items come to you & your surrounding is seeming a little store of fabric , sample & with others thing . You feel over loaded as your desk is overloaded by working stuff . How can you clean your desk to make free from all kinds dizzy materials ? This is really challenging for you rather than your daily job . Some time we feel keeping things on desk is not a problem & this is actually to get the things in hand . Believe me if your boss or others want to see anything in your obscene from the desk they might be puzzled & confused what to take & what to not take . So use only 30 minutes to keep clean your desk & put all the stuff in particular folder so that anyone can find any important item . This will make your job easy . Remember ‘The true competition lies is not what we do, but how we do it’.

12) Take suggestion if you are in trouble :
The universal truth is – two head is better than one head . That means if you are trying to do something counsel with other so that you can work more efficiently with less error . Never think you are the perfect one & no need to take suggestion from others . In other way this is called – cheer leader .Cheer leader is your boss , co-worker , friend so If you want to be in track & to do the correctly must discuss with fellow people. Definitely this will ease your job .

13) Filing & updating :
A merchandiser means lots of file & documents, so maintaining file for the each order & keeping the necessary stuff is very important . Actually this is little similar to the point ‘Keep clean your desk’. However this is specifically to put the thing in file properly . How your file will look ? where to keep it ? what name can be given to each file ? there are lots of issue that should have to take in consideration if are really interested to be a smarter merchandiser . To do your task in smart way you need to think about your file . Suppose where to keep it ? always try to keep your important file close to your hand so that you might not be haphazardly looking for your file when you need . Here some suggestion how to keep file –
  • Put a name for your file in bold letter .
  • Put all the information on top of the file ,example – style name , PO no , Qty , & a garment sketch .
  • Your file should be clean & need to keep all the paper in a chronological way .
  • For easy understanding you can use divider to keep separate the subject matter .
  • Use folder to keep different submission ,off course don’t forget to write date .
  • Use metal cliff so that the file can be use for long time .
  • If you receive revised PO please make sure to keep it in file & keep a cross mark on old PO .
  • Never remove any paper from your file ,if Pos are revised keep date on old file & write on top of it why this is changed . 

Interview Questions and Answers for Garments Job (Part-2)

Interview Questions and Answers for Garments Job (Part-2)

Mazedul Hasan Shishir
Production Officer at Intramax Group

I published 1st part of Interview Questions and Answers for Garments Job. I have got lots of response from visitor. For their request I am publishing 2nd part of Interview Questions and Answers for Garments Job. I think it will be more effective for candidates viva preparation.
Interview board
Interview board
101. If 40 or more than 40 defects are present in 100 square yards then the fabric is considered as rejected in four point system (True/false)?
Ans. True.

102. What is the name of first garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. REAZ garments.

103. What do you mean by garments final inspection?
Ans. Garments final inspection is to take decision whether the lot will be passed for shipment or it will be rejected.

104. What are the different types of sampling inspection of garments?
  • Without inspection, 
  • 100% inspection, 
  • Spot inspection, 
  • Arbitary inspection,
  • Acceptance inspection.
105. Write down the section of shirt making?
  • Collar section, 
  • Cuff section, 
  • Body section.
106. What do you mean by PD, WR, WP, and TC?
Ans. PD= Plain dyed, WR= Water repellent, WP= Water proof, TC= Tetron & cotton, SD= solid dyed, YD= Yarn dyed.

107. What is pattern?
Ans. The pieces of thick paper are required in the form necessary to make or style of garments is called pattern.

108. What do you mean by marking?
Ans. Drawing as patterns on the as per style.

109. What is consumption?
Ans. Needed quantity of cloth as per dz according to marker.

110. What do you mean by assortment?
Ans. To determine the quantity of garments according to size and colour.

111. What types of style of collar?
  • One piece (Banded) collar, 
  • Two piece (banded) collar, 
  • Sport open (no bended) collar.
112. How many types of cuff according to style?
Ans. Four types — 
  • Notched, 
  • Squared, Rounded, 
  • Pointed.
113. How many types of cuff according to construction?
Ans. Two types— 
  • One piece cuff (The cuff which includes both front & back in one piece of cloth), 
  • Two piece cuff (two piece of cloth).
114. Write down the types of front of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Plain, (II) Top center, (III) French front.

115. How many types of sleeve?
Ans. (I) Long genbol, (II)Sleeve placket, (III) Hemmed sleeve.

116. How many types of yoke ?
  • One piece plain yoke (yoke and back are one piece of cloth),
  • Two piece single yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke is one piece)
  • Two piece double yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke are two piece of yokes)
117. How many types of pocket style?
Ans. (I) plain, (II) Hexagon, (III) Rounded, (IV) squared, (V) Hemmed.

118. How many types of bottom style of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Straight bottom, (II) Tailed bottom.

119. What are the styles or types of packing and folding of shirt?
  • Stand up (collar is folded to remain at 90° angle from the floor level)
  • Semi stand up (collar is folded to remain at 45° angle from the floor level)
  • Flat pack (collar is laid to the floor level at 0° angle)
  • Hanger pack (collar is folded for a hanger).
120. What are the styles of shirt?
Ans. (I) Basic/regular, (II) Casual/Irregular, (III) Sport shirt, (IV) Blouse

121. What do you mean by numbering in garments?
Ans. This process is to put a number on the each part of a garment after cutting. So that the same numbers of each part might be combined at the time of sewing.

122. What is sorting?
Ans. This process is to sort by size and color after cutting.

123. Write down the attention point when marking
  • Jumping & bias should not occur
  • Position marking
  • Must fit the end of the net (one side) line
  • Must check the quantity whether all the parts are marked as directed.
124. When dies cutting is used?
Ans. For interlining cutting

125. What is inlay/sewing allowance?
Ans. The fabric which is kept excess of the seam line at the time of sewing is called inlay/sewing allowance.

126. Inlay is sewing allowance but sewing allowance is not inlay? (Yes/No) 
Ans. Yes.

127. What do you mean by Gusset (Front facing)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside of the front. This is two types— 
  • Upper front gusset, 
  • Lower front gusset.
128. What do you know about inlay (sewing allowance)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside during sewing.

129. What is back stitching?
Ans. It is stitching to back after finishing the stitch length; it is normally 3-5 stitches.

130. What is error part?
Ans. When left and right are attached being interchanged with each other or both right or left are attached in case of cuffs and sleeves is called error part.

131. Stitching and sewing, which is visible and invisible?
  • Stitching—visible
  • Sewing—invisible
132. What is double stitching?
Ans. The stitching which has two lines keeping constant distance is called double stitching.

133. What do you know about slip out?
Ans. When the interlocking stitching stitches do not lock with each other along the sewing line then it is called slip out.

134. What do you mean by floating?
Ans. Few stitches, which are not passed through the cloth of proper interval during sewing is known as floating.

135. Write down the classification of assortment/packing?
  • Solid size, solid color, 
  • Solid size, assort color, Assort size, solid color,
  • Assort size, assort color.
136. What do you mean by Y-shirt?
Ans. Basic shirt/regular shirt/Dress shirt.

137. What do you mean by casual/irregular shirt?
Ans. Various types of style.

138. What do you mean by sport shirt?
Ans. The shirt which is sporty and needs no neck tie.

139. What are the function of clothing?
Ans. 1. Protection 2. Decoration 3. Identification

140. What is the requirement of clothing?
Ans. 1. Suitability, 2. Appearance, 3. Comfort, 4. Aftercare , 5. stability

141. How can we difference between a ladies shirt and a Gents shirt?
Ans. Buttons are on the opposite side to that of gents shirt,
  • Ladies shirt: Upper front part is right side.
  • Gents shirt: Upper front part is left side.
  • Ladies pant: Fly piece is right side.
  • Gents pant: fly piece is left side.
142. What is E-Textiles?
Ans. E-textile also known as electronic textiles are fabrics that enable computing, digital components and electronics to be embedded in them. The emphasis of e-textile will be on creating a women textile with embedded copper which will provide the usual wear comfort and at the same time it will have a circuit with a few chips sunning at few megahertz.

Example: In the field of medical prevention and rehabilitation it becomes highly necessary to continuously monitor the patient’s health condition by keeping sensing devices close to the body and e-textile can successfully accomplish senior functionality.

143. What is the reason for clothing?
  • Modesty 
  • Protection against adverse climate conditions
  • Adornment 
  • Identification
  • Aristocratic reason
144. Size of Human?
  • Men-(i). Short- 5’ 3” to 5’ 7” (ii). Regular- 5’8” to 6’ (iii). Tall- above 6’
  • Women-(i). Short 4’11” to 5’3” (ii). 5’4” to 5’7” (iii). Tall above 5’7”
145. What is Production pattern/Garments pattern?
Ans. When necessary allowances are added to the working patterns, then they are called production pattern.

146.What is Working pattern?
Ans. The patterns which are made with net dimension of a particular style called working patterns.

147. What methods are used to make Block patterns?
Ans. i. Flat method ii. Modeling method

148. What are the methods of pattern grading?
Ans. (i).Manual grading, (ii). Computer aided grading.

149. What is half part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in every sides of a pattern, then it is called half part grading.

150. What is ¼th part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in either lengthwise or widthwise or in any two sides of a pattern then it is called ¼th part grading.

151. What is C.B.L (Center back line)?
Ans. Middle point of back neck up to the bottom end in the back part of a shirt.

152. What is C.F.L (Center front line)?

Ans. Line from the top button to the bottom end in the face side of a shirt.

153. What is collar stand or collar band?
Ans. It’s the part of a collar in which collar stands in upward direction. Collar stands in upward direction.

154. What is cuff?

Ans. It is the end point of sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist.

155. What is Ticket number?
Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread. e.g. 3/60, 2/80 etc.

156. What is Hemming?
Ans. The process of sewing of an edge or border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge, as for a garment or curtain, made by folding an edge under and stitching it down. e.g. Bottom edge of a shirt.

157. What is lead-time?
Ans. The time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process.

158. How design can be developed?
  • Sketching (Two dimension method): Usually developed on paper
  • Modeling (Three dimension method): Usually developed dummy or live model
  • Computer aided design (CAD): Usually developed using design related software.
159. T-shirt Feature.
  • Refers as casual
  • Garments with narrow neckline,
  • Garments with short or long sleeves,
  • No collar/Cuff, and
  • Usually made of cotton.
160. Polo-shirt feature.
  • Used to cover the upper body part (Tops),
  • Garments with short/long sleeves,
  • Garments with collar and cuffs,
  • Short button placket or short chest opening, and
  • Made of either 100% cotton or CVC or PC.
161. Tank Top feature.
  • It is a sleeveless pull over,
  • It is used over a shirt,
  • Used as warm shirt,
  • Garments with waist band, and
  • It is put on over head.
162. Pull over/Sweater feature.
  • Used as warm shirts,
  • Garments with long sleeves,
  • Garments with waist band, and
  • Put on over head.
163. Cardigan feature.
  • Open front and fastened with a zipper or button,
  • Garments with waist band,
  • Used as warm shirts, and
  • Usually made of wool/acrylic.
164. Shirt feature.
  • Upper-body garment with a collar, cuffs and pocket,
  • A full vertical opening and fastened with buttons,
  • With short or long sleeves, and
  • Men’s shirt having lower front part at right hand side and for women it is exactly opposite.
165. Sportswear feature.
  • Auto motorcycle racing wear
  • Bike wear
  • Golf apparel
  • Ski wear (winter garments)
  • Sports jersey and track tops
  • Sports shorts and trousers
  • Swim wear and beach wear
  • Training and jogging wear
166. What is the function of CAD in apparel industries?
  • Garments design.
  • Pattern design & pattern preparation.
  • Pattern grading
  • Marker making
167. What is the function of CAM in apparel industries?
  • Fabric spreading. 
  • Cutting systems.
  • Mover systems. 
  • Sewing systems.
168. What is grading?
Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not it̕s general shape & appearance.

169. What is the main objective of marker?
  • To minimize the fabric wastage
  • To improve the quality of garments.
170. What are the main product are produced in garments Industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. Woven shirt, T-shirt, trouser, jacket, jogging shuts, sweaters, jersey etc.

171. How much currency earn from garments sector in Bangladesh every year?
Ans. Above 75%.

172. What is quota?
Ans. Kind of agreement between the exporter country where importer country mention a specific number of garments.

173. When established garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. In 1960, ”REAZ” garments.

174. What is the basic difference between sewing and stitching?
  • Sewing is Invisible
  • Stitching is Visible
175. What is the difference between the yarn and thread?
  • Yarn = (i) Yarn is used for producing fabrics (Knit & Woven). (ii) Normally it is single ply.
  • Thread = (i) Thread is used for garments sewing. (ii) It is normally two or three or four plies.
176. What measurement unit used in America and Europe.
Ans. America use=Inch,  Europe use=Centimeter (cm).

177. What are the sections of sewing used for making a shirt?
Ans. There are three sections- 
  • Collar section
  • Cuff section
  • Body section
178. What type of woven fabric?
Ans. 1. Yarn dyed, 2. Solid dyed, 3. Denim.

179. What is Line Balancing?
Ans. Line Balancing is the allocation of sewing machines according to style and design of garment. It depends on, what type of garments we have to produce.

180. What is Compliance?
Ans. Compliance means comply something’s that is yield to the wishes another. The main aim of compliance is to ensuring the all labour rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of conduct.

181. What are the different types of order?
  • FOB (Free on boat) order
  • FOA (Free on air) order
  • C & F (Cost and freight) order
  • CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order
  • CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order
  • CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order
  • CM (Cost of making) order
  • TT (Telephonic transfer) order
  • Subcontract order
  • Exchange order.
182. What do you mean by FOB (Free on boat) order?
Ans. This is the export term of delivery and price quotation. The sellers send the goods for export and delivers them on boat (the ship). The risk is passed from seller to buyer when the goods are loaded in the ship at the port of departure. The buyer payes the freight charges. The seller does not include the freight charge with his costing.

183. What do you mean by FOA (Free on air) order?
Ans. The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the air port of departure. The buyer bears the risk from that moment and payes the air transport cost. The seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight.

184. What do you mean by C & F (Cost and freight) order?
Ans. The sellers send the goods for export, payes the freight charge and deliver them on boat (the ship). The risk is passes to the buyer when the goods are left the port of departure.

185. What do you mean by CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order?
Ans. This is identical to the C&F term except that in addition, the seller ensures (pay the insurance bill) the goods against loss and damage at his own cost.

186. What do you mean by CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order?
Ans. At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and commission for local buying house.

187. What do you mean by CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric supplier. This ordering system is following the tailoring shop.

188. What do you mean by CM (Cost of making) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CM only with the factory. So the seller does not add the price of fabric and trimmings with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory collects only CM money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric and accessories supplier.

189. What do you mean by TT (Telephonic transfer) order?
Ans. When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case, buyer gives purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by TT. After getting money, the seller sends the goods to buyer.

190. What do you mean by Subcontract order?
Ans. It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the time, in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local money from the order taker.

191. What do you mean by Exchange order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer did not pay any money against buying garments from Bangladesh. Instead of money, they are giving another goods or products, which is surplus in their country but we need it very much. This type of business is very rare. They use L/C for doing this type of business.

192. What do you mean by Proforma invoice?
Ans. Proforma invoice is temporary commercial invoice, which is send by exporter to importer. It helps to open a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer. It helps the foreign buyer to obtain an import license if it is necessary.

193. What do you mean by commercial invoice?
Ans. Commercial invoice is the final invoice and basic document. It contain all the details like name & address of importer and exporter, description of goods, quantity, rate, value of goods, details of shipment.

194. What do you mean by letter of credit (L/C)?
Ans. It is important document, which is used for doing the business, where Bank is responsible for payment in favor of sellers. It is a means/instrument for opening a credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer to make payment on fulfillment of conditions within given time.

195. What is Tag gun?

Ans. It is used for attaching the Hang tag, Price ticket etc.

196. What do you mean by Bill of Exchange?
Ans. A Bill of Exchange is a legal document and order in writing, requesting the drawee (Factory) to pay within the specified time. The drawer (supplier), drawee and payee (Bank) are involved in this transaction. The Bill of Exchange also known as draft, can be right draft or wsanee draft.

196. What do you mean by Bill of Landing?
Ans. Bill of Landing is a document issued by the shipping company acknowledging that the goods have been shipped on board and undertaking that the goods as received will be delivered to the consignee (Buyer).

When the export contract is CIF, then the exporter makes payment of the freight and gets “freight paid” Bill of Landing. On the other hand, if the contract is FOB, the freight has to be paid by the importer. In that case, the shipping company will issue a “freight collect” Bill of Landing.

197. What do you mean by Shipping Bill?
Ans. The shipping bill is the main documents required by the customs authority for allowing shipment. It contains description of export goods and other particulars as defined in The Sea Customs Act, name of the vessel in which goods are to be shipped, Country of Destination etc.

198. What do you mean by Shipping Order?
Ans. It is a document issued by the shipping line intimating the shipper (Exporter) about the reservation of space for shipment of cargo through a particular vessel from a specified port and on a specified date.

199. What do you mean by Vehicle Ticket/Cart Ticket?
Ans. It is a gate pass for port gate .it is prepared for admittance of cargo through the port gate. It contains details of cargo for export, the shipper name, cart, lorry number, gate number, marks on package, quantity and description.

200. What is pattern engineering?
Ans. It is the engineering idea which is applied at the time of marking for reducing the consumption of fabric. In this case consumption is reduced by overlapping the patterns or reducing the patterns or dividing the patterns into two parts like cuff, side pocket of pant etc.

201. What is Style?
Ans. A style is a type of product that has one or more specific feature or characteristics that distinguish it and make it different from other product of the same type. e.g. A crew neck is one style of neck line and a turtle neck is another style.

202. What is Design?
Ans. Within a specific style there can be many variations in trimmings, texture, decoration or other details like embroidery, screen printing etc. The individual interpretation or variations of the same styles are called design. One style can be many designs.

203. What is Fashion?
Ans. Fashion means consumer acceptance, the prevailing or accepted style in dress or personal decoration established or adopted during a particular time or season. The most widely recognize fashion authority, the late Dr. Paul-H-Nystrom (1928) define fashion is similar words as “Nothing more or less than the prevailing style at any given time”.

204. What do you mean by D/P (Document of payment)?
Ans. Under this method, the goods are shipped and documents are sent to the importer through the banking channel. The documents are handed over to the clearing (C&F) agent for clearing the goods from the port.

205. What do you mean by D/A (Documents in Acceptance)?

Ans. Under this method of payment terms, importer takes delivery of the documents on acceptance of a claim in the form of Bill of Exchange from the bank through whom documents are sent after goods are shipped. In this method there is risk of non-acceptance of bill and non-payment due to bankruptcy.

206. What are the processes for fixation of export prices?
Ans. There are three processes-
  • FOB (Free on board)
  • C & F (Cost & Freight) (FOB cost+ Freight = C & F ) and
  • CIF (Cost, insurance & freight) (C&F cost + Insurance = CIF)
207. What is consumption?
Ans. In the garments trade, consumption means quantity of raw materials with a view to determine the price of a garment. In order to calculate the above quantity how much fabric, sewing thread, button, label, zipper and other accessories are required to produce a garment up to the exporting is called consumption.

208. How many types of accessories?

Ans. Two types
  • Visible accessories e.g. button, sewing thread etc
  • Invisible accessories e.g. interlining
209. What do you know about synthetic thread/yarn?
Ans. This is large group of thread/yarn made mainly from nylon, polyester, rayon and polyamide filaments or fibres.

How to Increase Higher Productivity in Apparel Industry

Increasing Higher Productivity in Apparel Industry

M.A.(SOCIOLOGY ), M.L.M.(Labour Management), Pursuing MBA(EXECUTIVE) in (FASHION-TECH), MISTE.,
Chennai, India
Cell: +91-9283182955

What is productivity?
In simple words, is the relationship between Output and Input. The output in Apparel manufacturing factories can be pieces of finished garments. The output of sections with in the factories could be metres of the fabric inspected in fabric inspection section, cut components in cutting section, number of garments ironed in the ironing section and soon. The examples of input are man hours, machine hours, metres of fabric is being consumed (or) electricity consumed productivity can be calculated as follows

Productivity = .......................
Productivity is mainly based on with the expected output per sewing operator is 25 pieces of Jeans per shift and the operator productivity in terms of efficiency becomes 20/25 = 80%. The expression is to be called as “productive efficiency”. 

Partial productivity is the ratio of output to one class of input. I have labour productivity it means (The ratio of output to labour input) is known as partial measure. Likewise, material productivity means (The ratio of total output to material out Put) and machine productivity means (The ratio of output to machine input) are the suitable examples for partial productivity. Total productivity is refers the ratio of total output to the sum of all input factors. It is a type of higher level of productivity assessment combining several partial productivity measures.

Apparel manufacturers in international level will prefer to use partial productivity measures like labour or machine productivity. This is very much easy to evaluate its performance or to plan further improvement.
Production in apparel industry
Production in apparel industry
According to the Author of the book “Introduction to clothing production management” by A.J. Chuter, In an incentive based payment environment the amount of time the operators are able to do the task they are trained for in an unhindered fashion can be called “hours on standard” or on incentive. For some proportion of time during the work shift, the operators may not be able to work on their assigned task with full efficiency due to various reason like machine delays, waiting for work, repairs or doing an operation one is not fully trained in, etc. This time is called “off incentive” or “off standard time. The performance level of operators drops during off incentive time, as they only earn a fixed hourly rate without incentive”.

Factors that cause loss in productivity.
Annual labor turnover
Methods effectiveness
Average factory performance
Repairs returned to operatives
Machine delay ideal
Machine delay other work
Unmeasured work
Others repair
Waiting time
Balancing losses
Work study

Source: “Introduction to clothing production management” – A.J. Chuter.

To increase the Approval productivity following Do’s and Don’ts are to be considered according to Dr/ Rajesh Bheda – Professor at the dept. of GMT, NIFT, New Delhi.

  1. It is a must for every apparel producer, to start measuring productivity on a continuous basis.
  2. Productivity must be measured at various levels starting from operator / machine level, going up to plant level.
  3. Measure productivity in physical as well as value terms against all the quantifiable inputs.
  4. Monitor productivity performance to track improvement over a period of time.
  5. Do not accept claims of people without clearly spelt out evidence on productivity improvement.
  1. Ignore productivity measurement as unnecessary paper work.
  2. Assume your team understands what productivity is its true importance and the amount of value productivity improvement can add to your organisation.
  3. Leave productivity improvement initiatives to your people thinking that it is common sense.
  4. It better need to show commitment to productivity improvement and lead the team, after all “common sense is not common” and you cannot run away from your responsibility of leading by example. To increase the higher ratio of Approval productivity in apparel industries the following total productivity maintenance all to be introduced. (TPM)
Benefits of TPM are mentioned below:
  1. Increased equipment productivity
  2. Reduced equipment down time
  3. Increased plant capacity
  4. Lower maintenance and production cost.
  5. Approaching zero equipment – caused defects
  6. Improved return on investment (ROI)
  7. Rectified customer complaints
  8. Reduced inside plant accidents
  9. Ensuring pollution control measures
  10. Better understanding of the performance of equipment’s.
  11. Better understanding of critical equipment and the worth of deploying improvement effort for potential benefits.
  12. Improved work team and a less adversarial approach between production and maintenance
  13. Improved procedures for change overs and set ups
  14. Better training of operators and maintainers
  15. General increased involvement of the work force
  16. Multi skill training to be given among the workers
  17. On the job training lino to be established inside the sewing floor
  18. Giving rewards and awards to productivity based workers
  19. Medical, educational, housing benefits to be given to employees will always make them as a loyal employees; continuously work in one factory for a longer time.
  20. Fringe benefits tend to increase higher productivity constantly to meet over the customer’s requirements.
Pillars of Total productive maintenance are as follows:
  1. Five 5 policy implementation
  2. Jishu kozen (Autonomous maintenance)
  3. Kaizen
  4. Planned maintenance
  5. Quality maintenance
  6. Training
  7. Office TPM
  8. Safety, Health and environment
Five 5 policy means:
  1. Seiri (Sort out)
  2. Seiton (organize)
  3. Seiso (shine the work place)
  4. Seiton (standardization)
  5. Shitsuke (Self-discipline)
Today’s world class improvement of Japanese productivity increased only because of these 5-s policy matter.

Kaizen means ‘Change for the better’ in Japanese. The best English equivalent is “improvement” Kai and Zen which means change and good respectively.

Kaizen model consists of five elements which are Teamwork, personal discipline, breakthrough improvements and activities to sustain such improvements.

To increase the higher productivity in Apparel industry must adopt the above mentioned applications inside the plant, these implementations are surely increase the constant rate of higher productivity in the world wide Apparel Industries.

  1. Introduction to clothing production management by A.J. Chuter
  2. Production and operations management by R. Panneer Selvam
  3. Apparel manufacturing Analysis by Jacob Solinger.